Monday, December 24, 2018

How to Craft a Spell




This is the general process I go through when creating and then working a spell.  Hopefully, it will be helpful to you in learning to craft your own spells.  This teaching is based on George Polya's famous book "How to Solve It" which I cannot recommend highly to nerds.  Any library will have a copy, or you can buy one for $8 or less. These days, I mostly work spells for other people, but occasionally for myself as well.  I can provide additional instruction or support (or just do it for you) any of these steps for $100 per hour.  Email me at Sara@MastrosZealot.com to arrange a session.

First, I will list the steps, and then in the next post, I will make an example spell.  For my example, I will construct a matchmaking spell, intended to find and make a happy marriage.   (link to that spell here when written)




How to Make a Spell

Step One: Understand the problem.  Be careful what you wish for.

What is the current situation?

Carefully examine the situation from your current point of view. Write a full page, in complete sentences, describing the situation you would like to witch. It can help to ask yourself the following questions.  You may wish to use (or purchase) some divination (such as a tarot reading) to help you answer all these questions.  I find that most situations take about an hour of investigation.
    • Who is involved?
    • Where is the situation physically located in space?
    • Make a timeline of the situation up to the present moment.
    • How do I feel about the situation, emotionally? How do others feel about it? Here is a list of emotions to help you think about it.
    • How is this situation operating? What is sustaining it? 
    • How will the current pattern play out over time if uninterrupted?
    • Why is this situation happening? What was the original cause? 
    • Who benefits from the current situation? What forces in the world work to keep this status quo? 
    • Can you represent the problem with a picture?
    • What information do you already know?  
    • What similar situations have I done in the past?  How did they play out?

What would you like to be different?

Write a full page description of the situation as you would like it to be. Ask yourself all the same questions you asked before. It's ok if you don't know all the answers. Be as specific as you can about the situation, but try to avoid describing the path from here to there.  Be sure to think about who and what, other than you, would benefit from the situation being as you wish it.  Be sure think about the timing; WHEN do you want these changes to happen?  Be specific.  The longer you can wait, the easier it will probably be, but fix a deadline.  As a rule of thumb, most beginner spells should be showing some kind of results (although might not be fully complete) in a month or less.  If your deadline is more than a month away, consider cleaving off some shorter-term goals.  Here are some questions to ask yourself:

  • Can I describe the desired change in a single sentence?
  • What similar changes have I been able to make in the past?
  • Can I break this problem into several smaller, more manageable problems?
  • What is a simpler version of this problem which I already know how to solve?
  • Who do I know who has solved this problem before?  How did they do it?
  • Start with the goal and work backwards; what does it look like as it unfolds?



Step Two: Make a Plan/Recipe

In  most situations, this is the most difficult step.  It is best learned from a teacher (human or other) but you can teach yourself by carefully examining a lot of spells that were crafted by experts and trying to figure out why they did it the way they did.  Work some of them as written, and adapt/recombine others.  Once you have more facility in spell craft, you can skip this step and invent as you go (just like an experienced chef might make up a dish as they cook it).  BUT, that skill is born from having a lot of experience, and a huge library of "recipes" in your head already.  If you're going to hire a witch to do anything, this is the step you should pay for; in most circumstances, I can write a custom spell for almost any situation in about 2 hours.  The easiest/cheapest thing is to finding a ready-made "off the rack" spell and then adapting it to your own needs.  Some "spell recipe books" (sometimes called "grimorium") that I like are:
  • Mine!  See my DIY digital spell lessons, which run about $10-$15 each, here.  These come with complete idiot-proof instructions, and require no special skills or materials.  They also include some commentary about how to adapt them for your own situation, and several "movable" parts to use in other spells (like hymns and ikons)
  • The Greek Magical Papyri are a collection of spells from the syncretic Grekophone culture of the eastern Mediterranean in late antiquity, collected mostly in Egypt.  These require some level of familiarity with that culture.
  • Ancient Jewish Magic, by Gideon Bohak.  Requires some familiarity with that culture.
  • The Fourth Book of Abramelin the Mage is a 14th century Ashkenaz  (German Jewish) grimoire.  Like the PGM, it requires familiarity with that culture.  (some of which is provided in the Dehn/Guth edition)
  • Book One of Key of Solomon is an 15th century upper-class European Christian grimoire, and requires familiarity with that culture.
  • Pow Wows: The Long Lost Friend is a 19th century PA Deitsch grimoire, and requires some familiarity with that culture.
  • Mastering Witchcraft, Paul Huson
  • Hands on Chaos Magic, by Andrieh Vitimus
  • Protection & Reversal Magic, by Jason Miller.  Financial Magic, by Jason Miller. are useful for beginner magicians in those particular areas.
  • Encyclopedia of 5000 Spells, by Judika Illes
  • Cat Yronwode's Lucky Mojo site.
Things to consider when making your plan:
  • How will I target the people and things involved in the current situation?  You need to forge a path that links you and your spell to the targeted situation.
    • The easiest links to people are full names, photos, videos, or audio recordings.  Pieces of their body (such as blood, semen, hair, etc) are excellent. Generally, you don't need links to yourself, because your you-ness is that link, but if you want to work on a specific part (physical or otherwise) of you, how can you represent that?  
    • The easiest links to places are google maps surveillance and pieces of the place (like dirt or pebbles.
    • For corporations, logos, names, photos/recordings of important people, and place-links to offices are all good.  Branded merchandise, like letterhead, pens, and magnets are also excellent.
    • Bank account statements and wallets are good links for cash-drawing magic.
  • How will I link to the desired outcome?
    • Draw a picture of it.
    • Can I make/manipulate a physical object to represent it? (such as a poppet)
    • Describe it in a single word, or a very short sentence.
    • Make a sigil from that sentence.
    • What other symbols can I sue to represent it?
  • How can I manipulate the first set of links into the second?
    • For example, to seduce a person, you might make a link to them and then rub honey on its lips and rose oil its genitals.
    • For example, to get more money, you might put monopoly money in your wallet.
  • Who can I recruit to help?  
    • What humans have the power to change this situation?  
      • How can I recruit them to my team?  Some things to consider trying:
        • Ask nicely?
        • Offer to trade favors
        • Buy them off
        • Seduce them 
        • Make friends with them
        • Trick them (often unwise)
        • Threaten or compel them (often unwise)
    • Are there other human magicians I can recruit to my cause?
    • Friends of friends?  Other networked folk?
  • What agentic/sentient forces in the world would benefit from the situation being the way I want it to be?
    • Are the spirits that love me (ancestors, personal gods, spirit guides, etc) on board?  If not, consider the idea that they might be right before proceeding.  They might not be, but if the collective wisdom of everyone who loves you thinks this is a bad idea, they're probably right.
    • Is this good for my Community (however you define that)?  Work with communal totem-spirits.  If it's bad for you community, you might once again want to stop and consider if it is a wise action.
    • Is this good for the Land?  Work with local land-spirits, and with Gaia herself. If it's bad for the Land, you might once again want to stop and consider if it is a wise action.
    • Are their gods who might help?  Who wants to see this done?  For example, Hera likes to make good marriages.  Hephaestus likes to help people get good jobs that pay an honest living for an honest days' work.  Ishtar wants to help you have amazing sex with enthusiastic partners.  Pluton wants you to be rich as fuck.  Hygeia wants you to flourish with health.  etc, etc.  If no gods wants to help with this, is it unwise?
    • Are there plants, animals, ghosts, demons, or other kinds of sentient creatures that I can recruit to my cause?  What will it cost to convince them?
    • Are there medicines or other chemical spirits that want to help?  These are especially good for healing work.
  • What materia and symbols are related to this situation?
    • colors?
    • incense?
    • music or chants?
    • herbs?
    • stones?
    • magic words/names?
    • sigils and seals?
    • costumes?
  • What will power the spell?  Generally, it's best to combine multiple sources for anything big.  Remember, this energy can be stored, either in your own body for short-term use, or in constructed amulets/talismans/potions etc for longer-term storage, but most of it will probably need to be channelled thru your body in some way, because your body is your only mechanism of interface between the physical and non-physical worlds.  Non-physical magic yields non-physical results.
    • Your own personal chi/prana/body-spirit-power.  You can build more of this in your body in the short-tem with any of the following techniques:
      • breathe deeply and powerfully of fresh, clean air
      • drink water
      • eat wholesome food
      • dance about, or otherwise move to aerate your body
      • hum/sing/drum or otherwise make noise
      • some kinds of drugs
      • sex (alone or with partners)
      • There are also many long-acting techniques to build your capacity for personal power, including prayer, meditation, qi gong and pranayama.
    • Other people's chi/prana/body-spirit power
      • Most humans radiate small amounts of chi most of the time.  Places thick with humans, especially humans engaged in high energy enjoyable activities, are thick with power.  
      • Churches, nightclubs, gyms, and playgrounds are all excellent power sources.  Personally, outdoor raves are my favorite.
      • So are hospitals and prisons but that's kind of a shitty place to get your energy, because the people there need it more than you do.  
      • Personally, the single most energetically potent thing I have ever done is chaperone a high school dance, cock-blocking a couple hundred teenagers in heat.
      • Remember, if you're going to such a place, bring a talisman or other kind of "battery' to charge for later.
    • Other living creature's chi/prana/body-spirit-power.
      • Forests and other naturally balanced life-dense locations are excellent for this.
      • Factory farms and slaughter-houses are powerful, but also terrible.
    • Other non-physical spirits will provide the power
    • Fire, light, sun, moon, or other luminous/radiant energy sources.
    • Power stored in an object, such as talismans, machines, or cash.
    • Power of a place (such as a river or temple)
    • Power of a time (astrology is good for finding these)
  • How will you get the power from the source into the spell?
    • Mediate it thru your body by:
      •  physically consume it
      • sense-perceive it (for pictures, sounds, etc)
      • speak its name aloud
      • write or draw it
      • moving stuff around
    • Physically attach it to the links
    • Think/feel about it real hard (not super effective, but it does work)

Step Three: Enact Your Plan


Most plans will involve most of the following steps in more or less this order:
  • Clean the space you'll be working in.  It should be clean, healthy, and in good balance on both physical and spiritual levels.  How long this takes mostly depends on how long it's been since you last cleaned.  DO NOT over-clean, banish, or "sanitize" unless you have reason to believe there is something unwholesome or counterproductive to the work in the environment.  Healthy natural environments are mostly self-cleaning; pick up any human litter or etc, and you're good to go.
  • Collect links, materials, and tools and arrange them in a convenient and aesthetically pleasing fashion.  Personally, I like to construct a little altar, with an ikon of spirits who will be helping, pre-written hymns or chants, materials in pretty bowls, and etc.  My working table is painted with whiteboard paint, so I can draw/write directly on it.  If you are more physical in your magic, and will move around a lot, you might want to make a magical costume for yourself that has a lot of pockets or arrange the material in the ground in a circle around your working space.  If possible, set up somewhere you can leave things set up until the spell has worked.  Trays, which can be worked on a table and then moved somewhere out of the way, are helpful for this.  
  • Clean yourself.  Use the restroom to eliminate internal waste.  For bigger workings, take a shower or bath, but for small stuff, it suffices to wash your hands and face.  Focus on washing away impure (ie irrelevant to the work at hand) thoughts and feelings while you use the restroom and wash.  
  • Set the "vibe" in your space with incense, lighting, music, etc.
  • Set a timer so you know when to begin and end (I like to use this free online sound machine for this, because they also help to "set the vibe".
  • Enter into magical consciousness (trance).  For a new magician or lay person, this can take up to an hour.  With practice, you will get much, much faster at this.  Most expert magicians should be able to do it in less than 3 minutes.  Until you are so tranced out that you can't follow your plan, you can't really over do this.  There are many, many methods for this including
    • oration / chanting (my favorite)
    • singing / music making
    • drawing/writing
    • moving (dance or etc)
    • spinning or other handcraft
    • meditation
    • breathwork
    • drums or other rhythm
    • entheogens
  • Preform the spell.
  • Exit magical consciousness and recharge the spent power.  Just like it can take a long time for inexperienced magicians to enter, you might need some time to recover.  Drink some water.  Wash your hands and face.  Eat something.  Take a nap, etc.  Once you get better, this will be easier and faster.  If you worked with unwholesome power sources or spirits, clean yourself.  (but this is not recommended for beginners)
  • Clean up the space if needed.
  • Don't obsess over it.  It's done.  Just let it work.  If you find yourself obsessing, try reciting a relevant hymn or chant (even in your mind) to help empower the work when your mind turns to it,  but, as much as possible, do not attach to your desires.  If you often find yourself unable to let thoughts go, learn to meditate.  If obsessive thoughts and compulsive desires are interfering with your life, seek professional help.
  • If there are mundane actions you can take to help the work along, do those things.

Step Four: Analyse & Improve

  • After a suitable period of time (most beginner spells should see some results in a month or less) look back over what you've done and decide if it worked.
  • If your got just what you asked for:
    • How long did it take?  
    • What path did it take?
    • Using hindsight, how might you have made the spell more efficient if you had known the path in advance?
    • What other situations could you adapt this spell to?
  • Did it improve the situation, even if it didn't fully work?
    • What is preventing it from fully manifesting?  
    • Is there sufficient power, or should you add more?
    • Now that you can see the path it's taking, can you grease the rails in any way? (by mundane action or magical effort)
    • Are there blocks you can remove? (by mundane action or magical effort)
  • Is it a complete failure?
    • Are there blocks you can remove?
    • Does it need more power?
    • Does it need better links?
    • Were you sufficiently entranced?
    • Was your spell poorly written?  Try a different one.
  • Did it make things worse?
    • AS SOON as things get worse, unless you can see a clear path from where you are now to your goal, dismantle the spell and start over.  
    • Try to figure out why you went wrong.  Usually, this is caused by a poor understanding of the actual problem.  Be careful what you wish for.

Wednesday, November 14, 2018

Educational Funding Policy

Proposals for Changes in Educational Funding

Related image

In a discussion on my facebook, we're talking about what we'd like to see in a Democratic party platform. As some of you know, I'm kind of a tax policy nerd, and I was asked for details about how I'd restructure educational funding. It got long, so I'm putting it here. If you are not a wonky nerd, this post will have nothing of interest. OTOH, I've tried to keep this readable with minimal background knowlege, so some bits are a little over simplified. Feel free to ask questions, or for more details, in the comments! If you're my friend, and want to join the discussion, you can do so here: https://www.facebook.com/sara.someone/posts/10106298492821833 . I've done my best to verify all the facts and figures in here, but if something is wrong, please let me know and I'll fix it.  Almost all stats here come from the dept of education.  I live in Pennsylvania, so when I talk about "state level" that's what I'm talking about.  I live in the Woodland Hills school district, which is a national embarrassment currently under federal investigation for civil rights abuses, but I won't go there in this post.  Across many measures, PA is generally considered to pretty average educationally.  I'm mostly going to talk about K-12 education.  I don't know enough about preK education to say anything relevant.  I'll write a separate post about financing post-secondary education.

Intro: What is the shape of the current market for education in the US?

In the current 2018-2019 school year:


  • There are about 57 million school-age children in the US, who are the consumers.
  • There are about 3.6 million teachers, who are the producers.  
  • Total spending on K-12 ed is about $650 billion (about $13K per student).  
  • About 3.6 million kids graduate from high school each year, 92% from public schools.

In general, the government has four tools to intervene in a market, including the market for education:
  1. Purchasing power: For example, negotiating prices for prescription medications purchased by Medicare.  Many agricultural and other commodity subsidies are implemented this way, with the gvt buying up "excess" production to artificially inflate prices.Single-payer systems (such as "Medicare for all") are an extreme case of this where the gvt is the ONLY purchaser (this called a "public monopsony").  There are not many public monopsony markets in the US.  You would think that military systems SHOULD be an example of this, but US companies sold more than $56 billion dollars of weapons of war to purchasers other than the US gvt (both private mercenaries like Blackwater and foreign governments).  
  2. Taxes: Taxing "bad" stuff and subsidizing "good" stuff with rebates or deductions.
  3. Regulation: Restricting the sale of "bad" stuff and requiring the purchase of "good" stuff.  For example, we regulate the sale of tobacco and require the purchase of health insurance.
  4. Public Provision: Some stuff, the government is the sole (or majority) provider of.  For example: national defense, emergency services, infrastructure, and education are all (more or less) publically owned.  (that is, to say, the means of production are public)  
All of these mechanisms are at play in education.  Going backwards up the list:
4) About 90% of current K-12 students are in public schools.  Of people currently enrolled in post-secondary education, about 3/4 are in public colleges.  These percentages have been roughly stable over the last several generations.  Of private K-12 education, 36% of students are in Catholic schools, another 39% in other religious schools, and 24% are in secular schools.  About 3% of school-age children are not enrolled in school (most of these are home schooled).  Another way to say this:  Of 1000 kids ages 6-18, roughly 900 go to public school, 53 go to religious schools, 17 go to non-religious private schools (prep schools), and 30 are not in school at all.
3) Private education is very regulated, although regulations vary greatly between states.  PA is among the more restrictive states. 
2) This is the least used tool in K-12 education policy.  Many people think private K-12 tuition is subsidized or tax deductible, but largely it is not.  OTOH, tax subsidies are very much in play for preK and post-secondary education.
1) Publically funded grants and scholarships, such as private school vouchers or Pell grants are examples of this.

I don't feel like we need to either incentivize or discourage private vs public school decisions.  I think that arguments about whether or not we should funnel money "away" from public schools and "to" private ones, and also arguments that families should be able to choose "the school that's best from them" are distractions from the more relevant point that everyone is entitled to the best education we can give them, and decisions about what kinds of education are best are better handled by licensing than tax policy.  In what follows I'm going to talk about how to fund the 90% of K-12 and 75% of post-secondary education that is publicly produced.  I don't know much about preK education, so I'm not really going to talk about that at all.

What do we spend on public education?

In total, the US spends about $640billion on K-12 education, but only $24billion of that is federal.  
Nearly all educational spending (about 80%) goes to labor costs, of which nearly 60% is spent on teacher salaries.  Teaching is not currently very automatable, and there is nearly overwhelming evidence that says less students per teacher is better, almost no matter what.  For this reason, we cannot really decrease the amount of labor needed.  Since, we have a growing national teacher shortage, which in some fields (including secondary math and science) is reaching crisis levels, in the absence of significant reforms in teacher training, recruitment, and retention (which I will talk about some below) or dramatic changes in retirement, health care, and other benefits, we should expect per teacher labor costs to continue to rise. That means that education costs are expected to continue rising for the foreseeable future at greater than inflation rates.

The national median per-pupil expenditure per student for public K-12 education is about $11,750 per year, but this caries VERY dramatically state to state and school district to school district, from a low of $7000 in Utah to a high of about $22,400 in New York.  Within each state, this also varies excessively among districts.  PA spends about $15K.  Some examples from the greater Pittsburgh region: City of Pittsburgh: $23K.  Woodland Hills:$17K.  Upper St. Claire (a rich white district): $18K.   Differences in spending do not obviously correlated with differences in performance, until you control for the demography.  MOST DIFFERENCES IN PER PUPIL EXPENDITURE ARE BECAUSE SCHOOLS ARE FORCED TO OPERATE OUTSIDE THEIR SCOPE OF PRACTICE BECAUSE OF SHITTY SOCIAL PROGRAMS.  It is much, much cheaper to educate students who are homed, safe, healthy, and well-fed.  Policies on how to make a dent in this problem below.  (but, we cannot fantasize that changes in school tax policy are enough to address our nation's shameful poverty problem.  I'll talk about the ways I think education CAN address the problem below.

The overwhelming majority of educational funding happens at the local level.  In almost all places, schools are funded via property taxes.  This has the effect of ghettoizing schools.  HOWEVER, there is limited federal ability to impact this. 


My proposals, which are all paid for:

Expanding the net investment income tax to income earned in S corps and lmt partnerships.  This affects only those who earn more than $200K per year from investments.  That should raise about $13 billion in the first year after implementation.  With that $13 billion, I would spend:

approx $3 billion on teacher housing subsidy grants.  These grants would be ONLY for teachers who live in the catchment area of the school where they teach, and would be pegged to median income of families with a child in the school.  That is, the less money the average student has, the more money the school has to spend on housing grants.  It's hard to calculate how much this would cost, because I can't get reliable data on how many teachers live in their catchment area, and I do not know how to predict how much this would change those numbers.  $3.6 billion is if every teacher lives in their catchment area.  This helps to "level the playing field" by making low-income schools more competitive in attracting teachers, and also allows them to hire more of them.  It also encourages schools to be run by the people they serve, and strengthens community investment in the school.  When teachers live in the same communities as their students, they are better able to directly address those students needs.  Additionally, it incentivizes people in low income neighborhoods to consider teaching as a career.

$10 billion to hire about 150,000 new social workers and medical professionals in low-income schools.  I would weight this aid toward the lowest income schools.  That's about 1 new person for every 125 low income students.  I don't have more specific policy on this, but would be interested in talking about it.  These two, I would like to see structured so they incentivize school workers to live in the district.

Implement a financial transaction tax similar to the DeFazio-Harkin.  This would barely impact anyone but extremely wealthy financial speculators, and would raise $50billion, which I would spend to hire 300,000 new teachers of Civics, Economics, Statistics, and Personal Finance, again weighted toward low-income schools.  That's one teacher for every 15 students; ie enough to give EVERY student in the country a teacher in those fields every year.

Impose a new progressive estate tax, starting with 1% at estates over 1million and scaling up to 35% for estates over 5 million and 60% for estates over 10 million.  This would raise about 50billion per year. 

Spend it on before and after school child care, mentoring and enrichment programs in foreign languages, sports and fitness, arts, crafts, and trades, music, computers, nutrition & cooking, gardening, and other recreation in low income schools.  This is give every low income student in the US with an after-school mentor. (assuming those mentors cost about $45K per 20 students) . Since, presumably, not all families will choose to enroll their students in these programs (I can imagine a lot of churches will run their own competing programs, for example) there should be enough.

Expand the National School Lunch Program (which feeds about 30 million kids for about 13 billion dollars, or about $2.40 per meal) to also include breakfast.  Fund this with a 1.5 cents per ounce tax on sweetened beverages.  (similar to the Philadelphia soda tax).  Assuming that the average American drinks only half as much soda as the average Philadelphian, this would raise about 9 billion dollars or $1.60 per meal for 30 million kids.

My fantasy capital gains tax

My Proposed Capital Gains Tax Policy



In a discussion on my facebook, we're talking about what we'd like to see in a Democratic party platform.  As some of you know, I'm kind of a tax policy nerd, and I was asked for details about how I'd restructure the capital gains tax.  It got long, so I'm putting it here.  If you are not a wonky nerd, this post will have nothing of interest.  OTOH, I've tried to keep this readable with minimal background knowlege, so some bits are a little over simplified.  Feel free to ask questions, or for more details, in the comments!  If you're my friend, and want to join the discussion, you can do so here: https://www.facebook.com/sara.someone/posts/10106298492821833 . I've done my best to verify all the facts and figures in here, but if something is wrong, please let me know and I'll fix it.

What are capital gains, and why do we tax them differently from other income?


Skip this section if you can already formulate a coherent answer to that question.  "Capital gains", roughly, are profits made from the appreciation (increase in value) of an investment.  These gains are realized when you sell the asset.  The archetypal example is real estate.  If you buy a piece of real estate for $100,000 and then sell it 10 years later for $180,000 (which is about 6% appreciation per year; VERY reasonable for urban real estate), you have made a capital gain of $80,000.  (NOTE: As I will discuss below, there are special rules for primary residence homes).  It would be problematic to tax that at the same rate as income, among other reasons because the "gain" involved occured over 10 years, but the income all happened at once.  Also, because there wasn't significant labor involved in the profit.  To tax capital gains at the level of normal income would STRONGLY disincentivize long-term investment, which is a recipe for disaster that would rapidly concentrate wealth, property, and especially the means of production in very few hands, and encourage such ownership to be largely hereditary. (which is the direction the current policies push us toward, IMO)

When our capital gains policy was invented, almost all capital gains investments were infrastructure (the is "means of production") that the government had a clear interest in subsidizing, things like people buying homes and businesses buying new machines for their factories.  However, over the last century, it has become the case that most capital gains are on much more abstract things like stocks, mutual funds, and other securities.  To my mind, this clouds the waters as to whether or not we actually want to subsidize all capital investments at the same level.  (you'll see below some policies to address this)

To greatly over simplify, capital gains tax policy is about balancing two opposing forces:
High capital gains taxes slow growth.
Low capital gains taxes concentrate wealth.

How do we currently tax capital gains?



Again, if you already know, skip this section.  Right now, the US tax code splits capital gains into two categories: short term (investments held for one year or less) and long-term.  short term capital gains are currently taxed (more or less) as normal income.  Long term capital gains are (broadly) taxed as follows:  If, as a single person, you make less than about $38K in total income, they are not taxed at all.  Most taxpayers pay 15%.  Single people with an income over about $425K pay 20%.  These rates have dropped very significantly in the last 20 years.  In 1997, the top rate was 28%, and the lowest 15%.  Obamacare is largely financed by an additional tax on capital gains: People who make more than $200K per year pay an extra 3.8% on the lesser of (capital gains + dividends) or (earned income).

There are many weird details:  Under most circumstances, the first $250,000 per person profit from the sale of a primary residence are not taxed at all.  "Collectible" or "luxury" assets like coins, precious metals, art, and etc are taxed at a higher rate (around 28%).  There are lots of other details to this, particularly in how the brackets work for married couples. Google can provide WAY more details if you want.

What's the problem with our current system?

Many people, particularly republicans, like to argue that higher capital gains taxes slow economic growth.  The data does not support that claim.  About 70% of all capital gains are accrued by people in the top 1% of income.  this is largely because normal people build almost all of their long-term wealth in their primary residence and in retirement accounts, like 401Ks, that have their own tax rules.  People who live off of income (trust fund kids, hedge fund managers, etc) end up paying only 20% tax, which is disgracefully low.  For comparison, that is significantly lower than someone making $39K per year (national median income is about $55-60K).  Further, the non-graduated nature of the long-term vs short-term categories incentivizes flipping property on short scales; there is no benefit to incentivize long-term tending of property.  Finally, current policy does not distinguish between investments with relatively immediate public good (such as home ownership and factory expansion) and investments with very little direct benefit to the public (such as mutual funds).  

What do I propose?


For long-term gains accrued on investments held for at least 10 years

  • No tax at all on the first $50,000 of capital gains for a single person or married persons filing separately, $150K for a couple filing jointly. (I think there is significant social benefit to incentivizing married couple to jointly own their primary residence)
  • Thereafter, exclude an additional 5% per year.  That is to say, if you bought a house for $100,000 20 years ago, there would be no tax unless you sold it for more than $271K.  
  • Exempt the first $50K of capital gains on business equipment and real estate held for more than 10 years.
  • 0% for the lower half of all incomes (currently, that means less than about $55-60K)
  • 12% for incomes up to $200K
  • 18% for income $200-500K
  • 25% for incomes $500-5 million
  • 30% for annual incomes over 5 million


For gains accrued over more than 3 but less than 10 years

  • 0% for the lower half of all incomes (currently, that means less than about $55-60K)
  • 13% for incomes up to $200K
  • 18% for income $200-500K
  • 25% for incomes $500-5 million
  • 33% for annual incomes over 5 million
For gains accrued over more than 1, but less than 3 years:
  • 0% for the lower half of all incomes (currently, that means less than about $55-60K)
  • 15% for incomes up to $200K
  • 20% for income $200-500K
  • 28% for incomes $500-5 million
  • 35% for annual incomes over 5 million
At all levels, impose an additional 8% tax on capital gains from hoarding, ie "collectible" assets.  








Monday, November 12, 2018

Ask the Witch: Working in Cemetaries

All photos are from Allegheny Cemetery


Today, in a sorcery group I participate in, a question was asked about where in a cemetery to leave offerings.  I've written some on cemetery work before, but I haven't talked about the Queen Grave before.

I was taught that every cemetery has a Queen or King grave. Leaving offerings there is leaving offerings for the all the inhabitants of the graveyard. To find the Queen grave, wander the graveyards paths, with a trash bag, bottle of rum, some dimes, and a corncake (or your local substitute).  Pick up trash as you go.  Sing a child's song under your breath about the queen of the cemetery. Just make it up, and you will, eventually, feel it "click" in to being the right song. The one you always knew, but couldn't remember. Keep singing the song, and watch carefully for the Queen (or King) grave. 

It will likely meet most of the following criteria:
1) Have a large impressive monument.
2) Be on top of a hill, likely at the highest point in the bone orchard.
3) Be among the oldest graves.
4) Be of a person notable, in life, as a leader. (for good or ill)
5) Have a large tree close by.
6) Be ostentatiously occult in appearance.  The best way to become King of the Boneyard is to want it.

Of these criteria, the ostentatiousness of the monument is the most important, but not the only criteria. For example, the King Grave of Allegheny Cemetary is not the very modest stone of Ebenezer Denny (among the oldest inhabitants of the boneyard, a revolutionary war hero, and the first mayor of Pittsburgh), who is buried with a simple headstone, but rather the Wainwright family, brewers who are buried with this (now illegible) pyramid + book monument built in 1850.

You'll know it when you find it, because your song will come to a natural end. Large cemeteries, particularly those with many hills or trees that break up sight lines, often have multiple Queen graves.
Once you've found the Queen (or King) grave, what should you do there?  these instructions are for the first time you "meet" the grave.  I will later give "follow up visit" instructions.  

First, pick up any trash, dead flowers, faded/ripped flags, etc that are littering the grave and her immediate area.  You can sing while you do this if you want.  Make sure you take the trash off the grave, at least as far as the path, and ideally back to your car.  Once you are done...

Back onto the path, and face the grave.  Introduce yourself, out loud.  Give your full use name, and whatever magical ancestral, or etc names/titles you like.  Use an honorific title for them (Lord of the Graveyard, Keeper of the Stones, Queen of these Dead....whatever feels right)  Explain why you have come.  Bow/curtsey, etc.  Pour the libation, and leave the dimes on the headstone (small stones are also good) . Then, sit with the grave as long as you like, and listen for the will of the Queen (King). When you leave, bow again, and (if it is true) say that you would like to return again. 

Wednesday, November 7, 2018

What is Myth?


I recently cut this from the Introduction to my Orphic Hymns book (gods, I hate editing!). It's a short essay on the nature of myth.


What is Mythology?

As with so many things of real value, defining what exactly we mean by “myth” is a tricky thing. Myths are, of course, a kind of story The ancient Greek word μῦθος (mythos), from whence we derive our English “myth,” meant originally only “story” unencumbered by the complicated connotations of our modern usage. And yet, as we use the term today, not every story is a myth. I understand there to be, roughly, five criteria which distinguish myths from other stories:


They derive their “authority” from tradition and “for this reason they are not subject to rational examination by the audience”. They are not intended to be empirically verifiable, and do not try to make falsifiable claims about the world.


They are teaching tools, and provide actionable information about cosmology. They are often stories that have “morals”; however, unlike fables, they are not only rhetorical devices for those morals, but rather include complex descriptions of truths about the nature of people, the world, and the “proper” relationships between them. Myths have a clear point of view, and they want you to have it too. They are “capable of surpassing any form of rational persuasion.”


They take place in an extra-historical setting, once upon a time, although they are sometimes presented as historical. This distinguishes myth from legends, which are (possibly fictionalized) tellings of actual events and real people. Myths, however, do place themselves, as stories, in a historical context of older stories. They “go back to older, explicitly indicated or implied, real or fictional oral sources.”


They include supernatural elements, such as gods, magic, or archetypal heroes. This too distinguishes them from legends, which are largely “realist” in tone.


They have a special sacred character, and are not purely entertainment. They are often ritually re-enacted, and it is believed that just telling them can have impact on the world. This distinguishes myths from folktales, which are, effectively, secularized myths, often beginning as the remnants of a conquered culture’s myths. For example, Jakob Grimm wrote extensively on his belief that the folk tales he collected contained hints at pre-Christian Germanic myth.


Myths answer questions like “Why....?” far more often than questions that begin “How...?” In Homer, the word μῦθος (mythos) is used almost interchangeably with λόγος (logos) to mean, simply, “that which is told”. However, when they are distinguished in Greek epic poetry, “logos denotes not rational argumentation, but rather shady speech acts: those of seduction, beguilement, and deception.... Mythos, in contrast, was the speech of the preeminent, above all poets and kings, a genre (like them) possessed of high authority...”

And here we find what is, to my mind, the central idea necessary for understanding myth: “Myths are things which never happened, but always are,” says Sallustias, a fourth century Latin poet and counselor to Emperor Julian the Philosopher, and he speaks what we all know to be true. The way we understand a myth to be true or false is very different than the way we understand the truth of other kinds of speech. I wish I could unwind this special kind of truth for you briefly, but I do not think a brief discussion of it is even possible. In modern English, we often use the word “myth” to mean something that is completely false, a fabulist lie. However, just as often, we treat myth as a sort of primordial story which is truer than true. “...[P]rimeval philosophy, or rather the wisdom that preceded it, did not grow out of the negation of myth, but was born from its depth. Unfortunately, the development of philosophy did not lead to continually more perfect cognition and penetration of wisdom, but to the contrary--to its degeneration...Wisdom takes its root from madness.”

Greece, a highly literate culture, produced no “sacred texts” in the way we understand that term. The holy stories and myths were known to all, in a multiplicity of forms, constantly retold and rewoven by nursemaid and poet, dramatist and priest alike. Perhaps the most archetypal of all Greek writers, Plato, engages in just this sort of retelling. Plato tells traditional myths, often in greatly modified forms, but he also invents new myths as both teaching tools and rhetorical devices. And yet, not all of Plato’s story telling is myth: “The myths Plato invents, as well as the traditional myths he uses, are narratives that are non-falsifiable, for they depict particular beings, deeds, places or events that are beyond our experience: the gods, the daemons, the heroes, the life of soul after death, the distant past, etc. Myths are also fantastical, but they are not inherently irrational and they are not targeted at the irrational parts of the soul.”

At no point in Greek history until the coming of Christianity, would a Greek have understood what was meant by a question such as “Is this a true myth?”. All of the great stories were known in several versions, and this variety of forms continues to this day. The goal of this book is to neither revise nor to reconstruct ancient myths, but rather to add new tellings into the tapestry that is Greek myth. As the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogonies have it: “Take the fragments scattered in the texts of those who unwittingly hid them. Arrange their content in a mighty poem, easy to understand for the pious, yet obscure to the profane, that it might give solace once again to the souls of virtuous mortals, of yours and future generations, who are able to perceive the beauty concealed within the story it tells.” It is for this reason that I have chosen to use the word “mythopoet” (μυθοποητιᾰ) for myself, and for my ancient colleagues, rather than the Greek ῥαψῳδός (“rhapsode” or “stitcher of songs”) or the English “bard.” A rhapsode was a professional performer of epic poetry, a wandering storyteller. While they performed other works, including those of Hesiod, they were often also called Homeridai, because Homer’s epics were their main recitations. Rhapsodes were primarily performers rather than authors, although most noted rhapsodes (like Hesiod) also composed original works. Moreover, both rhapsodes and bards sang their recitations, rather than simply speaking them, although the differences between singing and what we would call “spoken word” were not as distinct in the ancient world. As must be evident from the fact that you are reading a book I’ve written, I understand myself primarily as an author, rather than a performer, and so I have settled on mythopoeia to describe the activity in which we’re currently engaged.

The English word “mythopoesis” comes from the Greek μυθοποιία, and literally means “myth-making”. The second part of the word, “poeia,” is the root of our English word “poetry” but in the ancient word, the line between poetry and prose was a fine one. Historically, “mythopoesis” was an obscure technical term, describing, as Victorian historians would tell it, that period of time when humans made myths “instead of science” to explain the world around them. However, in 1931, J. R. R. Tolkien popularised the word with a poem titled Mythopoeia, which was a direct response to his frenemy and Oxford colleague C.S. Lewis’s skepticism about the value of myth. Lewis (at the time, although his views softened with the wisdom of age) believed that myths are "lies and therefore worthless, even though 'breathed through silver.'” Tolkien replied in verse:

You look at trees and label them just so,
(for trees are `trees', and growing is `to grow');
you walk the earth and tread with solemn pace
one of the many minor globes of Space:
a star's a star, some matter in a ball
compelled to courses mathematical
amid the regimented, cold, Inane,
where destined atoms are each moment slain.
...
He sees no stars who does not see them first
of living silver made that sudden burst
to flame like flowers beneath the ancient song,
whose very echo after-music long
has since pursued. There is no firmament,
only a void, unless a jewelled tent
myth-woven and elf-patterned; and no earth,
unless the mother's womb whence all have birth.

Like Tolkien, I believe that Creation is an ongoing affair, that moment by moment, word by word, we each breathe ideas into being. Tolkien was a male, nominally Christian, British aristocrat writing in the 1930s, and his view of the world, like our own, was heavily shaped by his lived experience of it. I write as a pagan Jewish-Greek-American feminist, witch, and all-around freak, and I’ll go even further than he did: I say that the mythopoet, like the bard or the rhapsode, speaks for those who have tongues only of flame, and writes for those whose hands are the bare winter branches. For me, mythopoeia is an essential part of my relationship to the gods, the Land, the ancestors, and the World, both here and in the Other Place. It is my great hope that the hymns and commentary I will share with you here will help you to find your own voice and tell your own stories.

Thursday, November 1, 2018

Ask the Witch: Mythopoeia

Whenever I find myself writing something on social media that's longer than a few paragraphs, I like to put it here, so it's easier to find in the future.

Recently, in a sorcery group, someone asked: "Has anyone with clairvoyance/clairaudience ever tried to summon spirits to chat with them? I don't mean in a mundane way, but there are accounts of shamans and poets telling myths and things like that while posessed, and these stories later helped develop rituals, moral codes, whole pantheons and the like. I thing this would be a good practice to develop."  (not super relevant, but I want to quibbly a little bit: for the most part, rituals and practices do not develop out of myths.  Rather, myths arise later to explain, contextualize, and teach rituals and practices.)

As regular readers probably know, this is a topic I have thoughts on. :) Here's my answer:

A more technical and specific name for "telling myths and things like that while possessed, and these stories later helped develop rituals, moral codes, whole pantheons and the like" is mythopoeia.  You can read pages and pages of me talking about mythopoeia here.  (skip to page 4) . I do A LOT of that kind of work, in a variety of contexts and methods. 

My personal practice in mythopoeia is founded on a lifelong relationship with the gods of Greece, who provide a constant, exhausting, and endlessly fascinating stream of ideas for mythopoeia and ritual (primarily, but not exclusively, with the spirits of the cultures eastern Mediterranean) These days, I mostly channel this into professional mythopoeia. You can order my soon-to-be-published inspired translations of and commentary on the Orphic Hymns here, for example.   Here are some random bits of mythopoeia I've published here over the years.  Check the dates, and you'll (hopefully) see them improving:  Sarai.  Hekate & Artemis.  The Fairy Widower.  The Arcadian Hymn to Hermes.  Grandfather Ohio.

I'll talk about my own practice some at the end, but I suspect you actually want to know how YOU can do it.  So, here's a collection of my previous public teachings on it.  This is a skill I've been working on for about two decades.   IMO, learning to be a better mythopoet centers on working on three separate skills, and then combining them.  Like almost any skill, it is partly about natural talent, but its very, very improvable through a combination of quality teaching and continual practice.

1) Storytelling. I strongly recommend Ursula Le Guin's Steering the Craft: Exercises and Discussions on Story Writing for the Lone Navigator or the Mutinous Crew.  However there is absolutely no substitute for telling stories, out loud and on the fly, to a live audience, ideally audiences including both children and adults.  You will NEVER learn mythopoeia without doing that.  A lot.  Like shamans, mythopoets work for, with, and in service to community.  If you don't have a community who wants a mythopoet, then you're going to have to find or create one.

2) Spirit Communication.  I've written about how to learn this before.  The first method I learned wa automatic writing.  I wrote about that here.  I think this is the easiest method for beginners.  I wrote more on how to get spirits to want to talk to you here.  Also, a small tip for clairaudience: just like a big cloud of smoke, or a bowl of ink, or clouds, or a wavery candle flame in a dark mirror, help provide a chaotically dynamic medium in which for spirits to visibly appear, if you want to hear them, you're going to want a similarly chaotically dynamic sound.  Drums, rattles, rain, wind, and rivers are all traditional means for this, but noise machines also work.  Recordings are harder, because they can't adapt, but they can still suffice.  I REALLY like this website of noise machines.  Crowded restaurants or other places where there's a lot of people talking all at once are great.  Heavy traffic noise also works well.  I often use my dishwasher.

3) Trance Descent.  I think these skills are MUCH MUCH better learned from a person rather than from a book.  Personally, I learned two different kinds, and I think both serve me well.  First, I learned shamanic journeying.  I learned this in a two-year training program with Caroline Kenner of Gryphon's Grove Shamanism School.  She has since retired from teaching, however, several of her students (including me) teach her methods.  If you cannot find an in-person teacher, my teacher recommends her teacher's (Sandra Ingerman) book: Shamanic Journeying: A Beginner's Guide

I also do a kind of kabbalistic trance descent called Merkavah, which is taught in the Book of Ezekiel.  Honestly, unless you're not both Jewish and already deep into kabbalah, I don't recommend trying to learn it.  It's basically a much, much harder to learn version of shamanic descent.  It's powerful and amazing, but only if you're going to keep it in the cultural context in which it lives.  If you strip out all the weird idiosyncratic bits that distinguish it as a living tradition embedded in a specific cultural context, you're going to get more or less exactly the soccer mom shamanism I talked about above.  If you want to learn a beginner's version, try the novel The Seventh Telling: The Kabbalah of Moeshe Kapan.  Ignore the stupid nonsense in the middle with the girl.  You'll know the part I mean when you read it.  I occasionally teach this, under the title "Kabbalah: You're Doing it Wrong".

I combine those practices with a kind of Norse oracular descent called Seidhr or Spae.  Basically, you trip down to the underworld, and then post up and ask questions of the ancestors and gods. It's not a solo practice; you do it with and for an audience. In its modern form, it was reconstructed by Diana Paxson, Laurel Mendes (from whom I learned it), and several others in CA about 30 years ago. While I learned it in a traditional Norse context, my personal practice .  If you can't find an in-person class, I know Diana has two books on the topic:  The Way of the Oracle and TrancePortation.  However, I have not read them.  But, I assume they're similar to what I learned in class.  Since Seidh cannot be practiced alone, I wouldn't bother learning it until you have a regular audience.




Monday, September 24, 2018

Death to Bad Government!!

Thalassa Mural by Swoon (Jones Ave & Hawkins Ave

My borough, North Braddock, is among the most distressed in the country. Until recently, the wikipedia article on "urban decay" mentioned us by name. We are considering disincorporation, so that our police, abandoned property demolition, and other services would be provided by the County instead. The County Executive is on board with the plan. The Borough Manager is on board. The corrupt Borough Council refuses to even vote on it. More details about the situation here: https://www.post-gazette.com/local/region/2018/09/22/North-Braddock-disincorporation-allegheny-county-legislation-dissolve-services/stories/201809220003

Spirits of the Land, we are calling to you!

Grandmother Monongahela, Ancient River Dragon, we are Calling to you!

Spirits of the Plants, Animals, and Funguses of the Eastern Woodlands, Kindly and Fair Folk, all Good Neighbors, we are calling to you!

Spirits of the Paleo-Indians and Native Peoples who first inhabited this land, we are calling to you!

King Teedyuscung of the Delaware, we are calling to you!


Queen Aliquippa of the Seneca, we are calling to you!


Heroes and Martyrs the Whiskey Rebellion, we are calling to you.


Johnny Chapman, Beloved Brother Appleseed, we are calling to you!


Salamanders and Djinn of Coal Mine and Steel Mill, we are calling to you!


Joe Magarac, Man of Steel, protector of the people, we are calling to you!



Heroes and Martyrs of the Homestead Strike, we are calling to you!



Andrew Carnegie, your blood-debt is due! We are calling to you!



Roma Bards of the Hand Yard, we are Calling to you!


Mr. Fred Rogers, beloved Neighbor, we are calling to you!
Please won't you be our neighbor?

Residents of the Braddock Cemetery, Ancestors, Beloved and Mighty Dead, we are calling to you!

Our borough is beset, infected by blight and crime.
Our neighbors wants to help us. Let them! Let them!
Our corrupt council stands in the way! Stop them! Stop them!
Let the government of North Braddock be dissolved!
Let the government of North Braddock be dissolved!
Let the Land be free once again!


Long Live the Virgin of Guadalupe, and Death to Bad Government!